Before sowing, areas intended for maize cultivation should be examined for the presence of soil pests (wireworm, false wireworm). In this regard, the excavations of 0.25 m2 (0.5×0.5) to a depth of 25 cm are made when the soil is warmed at a depth of planting seeds up to 8-10 °C. Excavations are made diagonally across the field. In the presence of pests in the soil above the threshold of harmfulness (10 or more species per m2), it is necessary to pretreat the seeds with an insecticide protectant.
In recent years, the number of cotton budworm has increased dramatically. The damaging rate on individual fields reaches 80-100%. This is due to the coincidence of the phase of development (mass eclosion of larvae of generation II) with the flowering of ears, where the pest is concentrated. Coincidence of phases of a cotton budworm growth and other widespread pest – a european corn borer allow to combine processing against these pests.
Insecticides recommended in the zone are used for extermination of pests. In case of cotton budworm, it is recommanded to use the egg-eater – trichogram. It is placed on crops at the rate of 25 thousand per 1 hectare, distributing evenly throughout the field, as trichogram does not fly well.
The most common diseases of corn are: helminthosporiosis, maize smut, kernel smut, ear bacterial disease, kernel rot.
To protect crops from these diseases, it is necessary to observe crop rotation, quality seed treatment, protection of corn from pests and mechanical damage.